On October 5, 1910, a revolution ended the monarchic regime that reigned over Portugal for 771 years when Portugal’s King Manuel II was deposed and the First Portuguese Republic was established. Severe apprehension of the monarchy began to arise in the year 1890 when the king of Portugal at that time, King D. Carlos, made an immediate yield to British forces’ threat of destruction if Portuguese military forces did not withdraw from their claimed territories between the colonies of Angola and Mozambique (current day Zimbabwe and Zambia). This incident was deemed a national humility by a broad majority of Portugal’s population, initiating a movement of exasperation with the institution of the monarchy, for the monarchs were seen as the sole cause of “national decline.” With this increase in frustration, the Portuguese Republican party furtively began taking advantage of the growing apprehension to the monarchic political structure by amassing a colossal social support base that would eventually lead to the demise of the monarchy and establishment of a Republican Portugal.
On October 3, 1910, nearly two thousand soldiers and sailors came together to rebel against the military forces that were still clinging to their loyalty to the monarchic Portugal regime. The battling was split up between attacks in the cities of Rotunda and Alcantara where rebels charged at columns of monarchy forces in combat position. The monarchy forces’ cannons and guns could not sustain them for long against the rebels, for when backup was needed, they got word that their commander, General António Carvalhal, switched to the republican government’s side along with the unfortunate event of the rebels cutting off railroad tracks for a way of transporting troops and ammunition. This bloodshed only lasted until October 5, 1910, for the revolution resulted in a speedy victory for the republican party when the coward King Manuel II fled to Britain in defeat. The abolition of the monarchy was finalized and a proclamation of a new republican government took its place.
The overall depiction of the Portuguese Revolution of 1910 was the republican ideology that had won over the minds of Portuguese classes. The Portuguese Republican Party completely swept away the previous political structure, an absolute monarchy with strong ties to the Catholic church, to form a republican democracy, based on a strong government system that allowed liberty and stability to keep all people proud and supportive about what nation they’re from. Ideals that republicans stood true to was the belief that a nation must be unified as one with a strong sense of nationalism, or devotion and patriotism to one’s own country for the purpose of national advancement. This strong sense of nationalism had to rise above having particular interests of individual social classes or foreign nations that the former monarchy imposed. Republicanism was linked to progress and well-being of a country which relied on thinking and loyalty to one’s country, not loyalty to a single monarch, religious faith, or fear of a neighboring nation.
In conclusion, the fundamental change in Portugal’s government, a monarchy to a republic, implemented a new doctrine that guided the nation as a whole based on the importance of nationalism and looking out for the best interests of your country (which vitally involves all the people) to move forward as a mighty entity.
Resources: Payne, Stanley. “Chapter 23: The Portuguese Parliamentary Republic, 1910-1926.” A History of Spain and Portugal. Vol. 2. U of Wisconsin, 1976. Print.